By Professor Hugh Murphy, Honorary Professor in Economic and Social History, University of Glasgow
Looking today at the River Kelvin at its confluence with the Clyde, the onlooker may be unaware of the distinguished shipbuilding history of this area. As the University Archives Service works towards its interpretation of the centenary of the founding of the Royal Air Force in 2018, one of its instrumental founders was Lt General David Henderson, who served as General Officer Commanding the Royal Flying Corps in France, during the first year of the Great War, and who served briefly as Vice President of the Air Council early in 1918.
Henderson came from a ship-owning family. His father, David Henderson, was part-owner of the D & W Henderson shipyard at Meadowside on the Upper Clyde. Here follows a potted history of this establishment, which may interest those researching Lt General Henderson’s varied life and career.
By Euan Loarridge, PhD candidate in History at the University of Glasgow
On April 15th 1917, Second Lieutenant Harry Asher Hayworth was killed in action during the 1st Battle of the Scarpe, part of the wider Battle of Arras (April 9th – May 16th). Less than a month later, on May 12th, Harry’s elder brother, Second Lieutenant Frederick Hayworth, was also killed in action, near the village of Monchy-Les-Preux, just to the south-east of Arras. The two brothers who had lived together, studied together at the University of Glasgow, enlisted together in the Glasgow Highlanders, become officers together into the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and trained together throughout 1915-16, subsequently died together in the same offensive.
As part of the 2014-18 Centenary Commemorations, Harry and Fred’s story has become the focus of research at the University of Glasgow, teaching at Lenzie Academy and now a short segment on BBC Radio Scotland as part of the World War One At Home series. Biographies for both brothers, recently updated for the anniversaries of their deaths, can be found on the University of Glasgow Online Roll of Honour. This post will expand on their story by reflecting on the support the rest of the Hayworth Family provided Fred and Harry during the War and later how they dealt with their deaths.
By Euan Loarridge, PhD candidate in History at the University of Glasgow
At 7:25am on the morning of July 1st 1916 the leading companies of the 16th and 17th Battalions of the Highland Light Infantry (HLI) began to clamber out of their trenches and trudge uphill towards the German defences of the Leipzig Salient. They did not run. Weighed down by their ammunition, rations, entrenching tools, signal wire, barbed wire, grenades and a myriad of other necessary equipment, they moved at the pace of a crawl. The ground was uneven, torn up by shell-holes every few yards, which only served to further impede their progress. The whole advance was made under fire from German sentries who, despite the thunderous bombardment still falling on their trenches, continued to man their machine-guns.
‘Men went down like ninepins on every-side’
Among them was 21-year-old Second Lieutenant Robert Stanley Brown of ‘B’ Company 16th HLI, a cadet of the Officer Training Corps, who made it barely 50 metres into No Man’s Land before he was killed. Robert was joined by his commanding officer, 31-year-old Captain George Sutherland Fraser, an MA and BSc graduate, who was wounded close by. On the extreme right of the attack, 21-year-old Lieutenant Arthur Scoular Millar of ‘C’ Company 17th HLI, who had abandoned his studies to enlist in 1914, was shot in the throat as he led his platoon forward. Meanwhile, 25-year-old Company Sergeant Major Steven Donaldson Reith of ‘B’ Company 17th HLI, a BSc Graduate and OTC cadet, watched in horror as his fellow cadet and best friend 24-year-old Sergeant Archibald Lang, also of ‘B’ Company, was hit three times. Twice Archie successfully dragged himself to his feet and pushed on before finally being brought down in the open ground before the Leipzig Redoubt.
At 7:29am, the Lochnagar Mine at La Boiselle was detonated and over to their right, the Highlanders could see a great column of dirt rise up above Authuille Wood. In just six seconds, the sound of the explosion travelled the two kilometre distance and the force of the shockwave was enough to blow some men from their feet. Barely a minute later, the bombardment on the German trenches lifted and the defenders raced from their dugouts. They lined their trenches and paradoses with bombers and machine guns, and ‘welcomed’ the Highlanders with ‘hand grenades and gunfire’. ‘Yelling like fiends’, the men of the 17th HLI raced the last 60 yards to storm the German trenches where the madness of hand-to-hand combat ensued. The men of the 16th HLI however, having been ‘severely dealt with’ by the machine guns, were not so fortunate as the advancing platoons ‘were simply mown down’.
Yet, still more men continued to clamber out of their trenches. 36-year-old Major James McElwain, a student from 1899 to 1904 and commander of ‘C’ Company 16th HLI, was wounded leading his Company forward in the open ground opposite a position known as ‘The Point’. This position was the site of the German machine gun nest that claimed the lives of a number of men of ‘C’ Company; including 28-year-old MA graduate Private Adam Scott. Around the same time, former mathematics student Second Lieutenant John Murdoch of ‘D’ Company 16th HLI passed the body of his old OTC comrade Robert Brown before pressing on to the German barbed wire. This proved to be completely uncut and, with no way through into the trench, John and his men were trapped. They took what cover they could find in nearby shell holes where they remained throughout the day until they could escape under cover of darkness. Although nearly 100 men returned to the British lines that night; John was not amongst them, his body probably being recovered by the Germans.
In the space of just 20 minutes, the 16th HLI suffered over 500 men killed, wounded or missing, including 23-year-old Classics Graduate and Corporal Thomas Duncan Mackenzie, whose body was never identified. Yet the bloodshed continued as the 17th HLI, leaving behind their sister battalion, pressed on into the Leipzig Salient. They overran ‘Leipzig Trench’ and the redoubt in Authuille Chalk Quarry before pressing on towards ‘Hindenburg Trench’ under the leadership of 45-year-old Major Edward Hutchison, a Law student from 1892 to 1894. In the open ground before ‘Hindenburg Trench’ Edward was mortally wounded by enfilade fire from a German machine gun, which probably also claimed the life of 23-year-old Lance Corporal George Edward Gannaway, who had interrupted his engineering degree to enlist in 1914. Around the same time, 21-year-old Second Lieutenant John Neilson Carpenter MC, who had studied alongside George Gannaway, disappeared while leading ‘C’ Company along the southern face of the salient. He too has no known grave.
By 8:15am, every company commander was a casualty and command of the Highlanders who had made it into the Leipzig Salient, now defaulted to Lieutenant Morrison and 25-year-old Lieutenant James Scott Marr, who had joined the University OTC in 1914. Further efforts to advance were deemed impossible without reinforcement and the two young officers were ordered to hold the newly captured ground against German counter attacks. These came from the Reserve Infanterie Regiment No.99 to the North, along the crest of the ridge, and from Infanterie Regiment No.180 to the East, up the ridge’s reverse slope. While Lieutenant Morrison took charge of the bomb supply, James Marr worked ‘with energy, courage and without the least regard of personal safety’ to organise the defence around Authuille Chalk Quarry. There a series of furious hand-grenade battles took place, with one participant, Sergeant Turnbull, receiving a posthumous Victoria Cross for his efforts. The heavy fighting around the Quarry also claimed the lives of 21-year-old Lance Corporal James Lindsay Brown, another engineering student; and former Law student, 32-year-old Private Robert Ritchie. Three years later in 1919, James and Robert’s bodies would be recovered near the eastern lip of the Chalk Quarry.
Despite almost ceaseless German counter-attacks, the Highlanders clung on to the tip of the Leipzig Salient for eight long hours before serious reinforcements arrived. Ultimately, the Salient would prove to be the only section of the German line, North of the Albert-Bapaume Road, retained by the British Army at the end of the first day of the offensive. The War Diary of the 17th HLI directly credits Lieutenants Morrison and Marr for this feat and both were Mentioned in Dispatches for their efforts. Yet, over 2,000 men had been killed or wounded taking the Leipzig Salient, including 23-year-old Lance Sergeant James Cunningham McNaught of the 17th HLI, a former Law student affectionately known to his men as ‘The Chief’. Also amongst the dead was 27-year-old MA and BSc graduate Captain Thomas Middleton, who commanded a section of the 97th Trench Mortar Battery during the Battle. Both James and Thomas are commemorated on the Theipval Memorial to the Missing, as the location and circumstances of their death remain unknown.
In total, 18 members of the University of Glasgow community took part in the 16th and 17th HLI’s attack on the Leipzig Salient. At the end of the day only two individuals, James Marr and Corporal James Crawford Robertson, both of the 17th HLI, emerged unscathed; though neither lived to see 1917. 10 former students and cadets were killed in the attack, with six more wounded. Two of which, Edward Hutchison and Archibald Lang, again both of the 17th HLI, ultimately died of the wounds they had sustained. This action ultimately proved to be one of the single largest concentrations of former University personnel in one place, at one time, in the entire First World War and consequently, became the single greatest loss sustained by the University Community in the Battle of the Somme.
Works Consulted and Further Reading
The above narrative is based on the author’s Masters dissertation research. Quotations were taken from Thomas Chalmers’ History of the 16th HLI and Arthur & Munro’s History of the 17th HLI, as well as the 1916 editions of the Outpost Magazine and unpublished account of Pte. Kinnear, 17th HLI, kindly supplied by the Royal Highland Fusiliers Museum. Also referenced were the War Diaries of the 16th HLI, 17th HLI and 97th Brigade which are available for download from The National Archives. Extracts were also taken from the account of Lieutenant F. C. Cassel of RIR 99 held by the Imperial War Museum. The story of CSM Steven Reith and Sgt. Archibald Lang is contained in biographies of the Hillhead High School Memorial Volume.
The Aerial Photograph of ‘The Point’ and Reserve Army Panoramic Intelligence Photograph 62 are both available from the collection of the Imperial War Museum. More can be found on the Intelligence Photographs in Barton & Holmes’ The Battlefields of the First World War: The Unseen Panoramas of the Western Front. James Kerr’s Battlefield Photographs are available in Doughty & Kerr’s Silent Landscape: The Battlefields of the Western Front One Hundred Years On.
By Euan Loarridge, PhD candidate in History, University of Glasgow
As, things begin to gear up for the anniversary of the Battle of Arras (April 19th – May 12th) this post reflects on the University’s Commemoration of last year’s Centenary of the Battle of the Somme.
Posted on behalf of University of Glasgow alumnus Tom Green
The Scottish Memorial in Flanders, Belgium was erected in August 2007 to commemorate the 90th anniversary of the Battle of Passchendaele. The monument is located close to the village of Zonnebeke and Ieper/Ypres, the town made famous by its location in the Ypres Salient where so much fighting took place during World War One. The monument is sited where the 15th (Scottish) Division stormed and captured ground held by the German army during the Battle of Passchendaele on 31 July 1917. The monument was unveiled in August 2007 during a high profile ceremony and plans are now in place to complete the Memorial Park as part of the commemoration of the centenary of the battle in August 2017. View images from the unveiling of the 2007 Memorial here and find out more about forthcoming commemorations through 2018 from the Passchendaele Memorial Museum website.
By Dr Jen Novotny, Research Assistant in History, University of Glasgow
This post looks at how medics at Jutland treated battle casualties, contending not only with complex injuries, but having to manoeuvre through confined spaces aboard ships.
By Dr Jen Novotny, University of Glasgow
On 31 May, the national commemorations of the Battle of Jutland will take place in Orkney. It highlights Scotland’s contribution to the First World War at sea: particularly the great ships constructed along the Clyde and the strategically important harbours of Rosyth and Scapa, from which the fleets of Admirals Beatty and Jellicoe set sail to meet their German counterparts. This post explores the contributions of Scottish industry and the labour tensions that simmered on the home front while war continued to be waged on land and sea.